Ratified in 1919, the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution banned the manufacture, sale and transportation of liquor. Even before the law took effect in 1920, Congress passed the Volstead Act, or National Prohibition Act, which outlawed the sale of “intoxicating beverages”—defined as any drink containing 0.5 percent or more of alcohol.
Of course, no amount of legislation could transform all Americans into teetotalers; instead, Prohibition simply drove alcohol consumption underground. Millions of people in small towns and large cities imbibed at secret taverns and bars called speakeasies. Although the exact origins of the term are unknown, it might have arisen because prospective patrons had to whisper—or “speak easy”—through a small opening in a door to enter the illegal establishments, providing the name of the person who had sent them.
As law enforcement officials shut down countless bars and saloons across the country, speakeasies sprang up overnight, and by 1925 tens of thousands had opened in New York City alone. Many were drab, makeshift saloons in basements or tenements located in shabby parts of town. Some, however, were fine restaurants in their own right, including New York City’s swanky 21 Club, which featured two bars, a dance floor, dining rooms on two levels and underground passageways leading to a secret wine cellar.
To help soak up the booze and drive up sales, some enterprising speakeasy proprietors began offering more than just gin fizzes, whiskey smashes, martinis and other popular cocktails of the day. Rather than heavy meals, their inebriated customers were given assorted bite-sized canapés to snack on while mingling in the illicit dens’ loud, crowded rooms.
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It was also during this period that the custom of hosting cocktail parties at home became fashionable. The rise of these intimate events led to the popularization of an increasingly wide array of finger foods. Hosts paraded out such popular culinary delights as lobster canapés, caviar rolls, crabmeat cocktails, shrimp patties, oyster toast, jellied anchovy molds, radish roses, devilled eggs and savory cheese balls. Sweet selections included fruit cocktail cups topped with powdered sugar or marshmallows.
Even after the 1933 repeal of the 18th Amendment, the practice of serving finger foods at restaurants, bars and cocktail parties lived on and quickly became a popular American culinary tradition. Care to whip up some Prohibition-era finger foods at your next social gathering? Try out these recipes from Fannie Farmer’s “Boston Cooking-School Cook Book,” which was published in 1918 and widely used in the United States throughout the 1920s.
BREAD AND BUTTER FOLDS
Cream butter. Remove end slice from bread. Spread each slice of bread sparingly and evenly with butter. Remove crusts, put together in pairs and cut in squares, oblongs or triangles. Use white, entire wheat, Graham or brown bread. Three-layer sandwiches are attractive when made of entire wheat bread between white slices.
Chop finely the whites of hardboiled eggs; force the yolks through a strainer or potato ricer. Mix yolks and whites, season with salt and pepper to taste, and moisten with mayonnaise. Spread mixture between thin slices of buttered bread prepared as for Bread and Butter Folds.
Salt and pepper
Finely chop lobster meat and add an equal quantity of yolks of hardboiled eggs forced through a sieve. Moisten with melted butter and heavy cream, using equal parts, and season with salt, cayenne and mustard to taste. Spread on sautéed circular slices of bread and garnish with rings cut from whites of hardboiled eggs, yolks of hardboiled eggs and lobster meat.